Sunday, February 16, 2020
And evaluate one or two works of twentieth-century literary criticism that take a psychoanalytic approach to Shakespea - Research Paper Example Perhaps some of the most intriguing insights have come as a result of the psychoanalytical school of critical investigation. Sigmund Freud himself analyzed the play advancing a number of theoretical notions on HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s subconscious and Oedipal relation to his mother. This essay considers Ã¢â¬ËThe Oedipus-Complex as An Explanation of Hamlet's Mystery:?A Study in MotiveÃ¢â¬â¢ a famous psychoanalytic interpretation of Hamlet advanced by theorist Ernest Jones and work by Sigmund Freud in analyzing Hamlet. One of Sigmund FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s primary theories and a central element of psychoanalysis is the understanding that man is affected by a repressive urge towards love for their mother. Referred to as the Oedipal Complex, Freud indicates that men are then motivated by an urge to murder their father and marry their mother, except this is generally repressed. Hamlet makes a brilliant representation of this theory in action, as HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s complex relation between his mother and her new-husband, also his step-father, Claudius constitutes a significant element of the playÃ¢â¬â¢s narrative structure. This interpretation is not lost on Jones, who argues that in large part HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s intensity of conflict with Claudius is rooted in these psychological urges. Jones writes, Ã¢â¬Å"Hamlet's second guilty wish had thus also been realized by his uncle, namely to procure the fulfilment of the first -- the possession of the mother -- by a personal deed, in fact by murder of the fatherÃ¢â¬ (Jones). In these regards, Claudius has actually usurped and realized HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s repressed childhood desire, namely the wish to murder his father and marry his mother. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s believed that the conflict associated with their relationship is then a direct result of this unconscious psychological urges. While Jones argues that a great degree of HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s actions are motivated by these unconscious Oedipal desires, there remains a number of questions related to t his psychoanalytic examination. One of the predominant questions one wonders is that if Hamlet is so consumed by his desire to marry Gertrude, and Claudius has usurped his ability to accomplish this repressed desire, than why does Hamlet not simply murder Claudius. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s clear that Hamlet is willing to go to these extremes, yet throughout the play he refrains from this action. In these regards, Jones argues that Freud believes HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s unwillingness to murder Claudius is related to an unconscious unwillingness. For Jones, if Hamlet were to kill Claudius it would be killing off this unconscious childhood fantasy, and in doing so, it would be in a sense removing an aspect of himself and internal constitution. Freud himself considered this issue and wrote, Hamlet is able to do anything -- except take vengeance on the man who did away with his father and took that father's place with his mother, the man who shows him the repressed wishes of his own childhood realized. Thus the loathing which should drive him on to revenge is replaced in him by self-reproaches, by scruples of conscience, which remind him that he himself is literally no better than the sinner whom he is to punish. Here I have translated into conscious terms what was bound to remain unconscious in Hamlet's mind.... In addition to demonstrating an overriding interpretation for HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s unwillingness to murder Claudius, this passage from Freud also contributes to interpreting HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s overall motivations throughout the pla
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Anthropological analysis and conceptual synthesis - Article Example The society is herein described as one filled with male chauvinism, not ready to tolerate the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s faith related stands. The saints were very firm on their maintenance of chastity and could even pray to God to make them ugly so that they could protect their chastity. For instance, St. Wilgefortis prayed for ugliness, and she was granted a manÃ¢â¬â¢s beard (Winston, Para 4). The male chauvinism however saw her murdered by her father. Others were like St. Lucia whose eyes were torn out for disappointing her family. These examples show that the women believed in their course and bravely stepped out of the societal norms (Winston, Para 6). From the article, it can be seen certain themes can be drawn. One of the themes is religion in which the saints are firmly rooted. The religion brings about the other theme of power whereby the males are seen to possess in plenty. They, however, misuse their power by killing the faithful females. The theme of male dominance is further shown by the linearity of mobility and recreation in which are based on social hierarchies. This is described in the Ghanam who describes the lives of brother and a sister from a low-income neighborhood in Egypt. The brother is drawn as the one dictating the mobility, suggesting male dominance (Ghannam 790-800). Summarizing GhanamÃ¢â¬â¢s article, various methods supporting the solving of reconfiguration of inequalities can be explained. Farha Ghannam explains this by using the example of a brother and a sister who come from a low-income neighborhood in Egypt. Throughout the article, Ghanam describes the methods of liminality of mobility which illustrate social hierarchies. The methods include inequalities referring to mobility, class, gender and embodiment. Eyebrows." Were Some Catholic Saints Transgender? Berkeley Show Raises Eyebrows. 6 Nov. 2014. Web. 23 Feb. 2015.