Tuesday, December 24, 2019

Tennessee Williams †The Glass Menagerie †Jim as a...

Tennessee Williams – The Glass Menagerie Jim as a Representative of the American Dream and the Ideology of Optimism and Progressivism â€Å"He is the most realistic character in the play, being an emissary from a world of reality that we were somehow set apart from. . . . he is the long-delayed but always expected something that we live for.† (Williams 5) – Jims first introduction by Tom as a narrator is a crucial one, as it points to the ambiguity of Jims character. For the Wingfield family the young gentleman caller seems to be the symbolization of the American Dream and a way to overcome their own incapacities. But considering the external circumstances during the early decades of the 20th century and the further†¦show more content†¦And Gerald Weales comment on Jim being â€Å"dead wrong† (103) is legitimate as well, because it hints to Jims naà ¯vety that is demonstrated when he euphemistically claims that Americas future will be â€Å". . . even more wonderful than the present time is!† (Williams 72). As mentioned, the 1930s were far from â€Å"wonderful† and some people even tended to create their own illusionary universe, safely set in the past – like Amanda Wingfield. While Jims eyes are directed towards the future, Amanda is stuck in her obsolete past. Her American Dream is the traditional one; she always wanted to embody the image of the Southern Belle. But in the attempt to fulfill her Dream, which for a woman meant to live in a happy marriage with a wealthy husband, she has failed – Toms and Lauras father has left the family long time ago. What is left for Amanda is the memory of her youth in Blue Mountain where she had not only received seventeen gentlemen callers on a single day but also missed the opportunity to marry the later vice president or a very rich stockbroker – her opportunity of success. Concentrating on the bygone times Amanda has also missed the general change of values, as Williams already hints in the first descriptions about the characters of his play: â€Å"A little woman . . . clinging frantically to another time and place† (Williams xviii). Only slowly she realizes that the world outside forces her t o care for her children, so she starts selling

Sunday, December 15, 2019

The Role of Women in History Free Essays

Andrew Makarian History 105 – 1002 Essay 2 In the history of western civilization were there any significant changes in the roles of women and in how these were defined? Women: cant live with them. Cant live without them. An old adage that pokes fun, yet is telling in its statement about how men view women. We will write a custom essay sample on The Role of Women in History or any similar topic only for you Order Now This sense of incompatibility curtails the differential roles men and women have played throughout history. The separation of sexes into distinct roles has inherently made them unequal. In today’s modern society, these deviations have been lessoned, but throughout the course of western development the roles of women have be markedly transformed. Looking back, three distinct points in time mark a transitional shift in female roles: the Code of Hammurabi, Spartan society, and the renaissance revival in education. Beginning in the ancient near east, the earliest accounts of women in society come to us from the Code of Hammurabi. Used as a guideline for society, the code candidly depicts daily life in ancient Babylon, defining among many things the roles of men and women. From the very beginning, the code depicts a very imbalanced view on gender roles; nearly every line in the code begins with â€Å"if a man†¦Ã¢â‚¬  making it painfully clear this code was written for men. The laws did not give credence to women unless addressed under a man: â€Å"if a man’s wife has a finger pointed at her on account of another, but has not been caught lying with him, for her husband’s sake she shall plunge into the sacred river (Beatty, 10). † women are cited inferior to men in their importance, but also their opinion has no real value in social determinations. This subservient role promises no power in ancient society, women found identity through the man they where with. If for any reason †she has not been discrete, has gone out, ruined her house, littered her husband, she shall be drowned (Beatty, 10). † There is absolutely no room for individualism. Women in ancient times where deprived of a real separate role in greater society, they are portrayed basically as extension of their male contemporaries. Although this particular near east culture defined women as patriarchal property, women would see increased development in their social roles as humanity as a whole progressed. From Babylon to Sparta, over a millennium of improvements, the roles of women would see several significant changes. In the classical age, the Spartan city-state grew into a powerful warrior based society in the Peloponnesian. The polis was based on hoplite primacy: Spartan men played the role of warrior. The importance of â€Å"manliness† for men ironically proved pivotal in strengthening women’s roles in society. There was a revolutionary shift in perspective: â€Å"Only Spartan women could rule men† and that was because â€Å"only Spartan women gave birth to real men. † These advancements for women translated into increased opportunities. Spartan women could marry whomever they wanted, Spartan women could ascertain an education, and Spartan women could own land. The development roles in this time period were important for laying the foundations for future progress. Being an influential power, Spartan society expanded throughout the Aegean and spread its beliefs to forthcoming cultures. The likes of Athens, Macedon, and even the Roman Empire would come to acknowledge Spartan advancements in female status. At the height of the roman republic, this influence would translate into upper-class Roman women earning an education and practicing the rhetorical traditions. Such extraordinary advancements would unfortunately curtail the decline of society as a whole, as roles began to backslide into obscurity. Beyond Sparta and after the fall of Rome, western civilization sees a decline in many aspects, including the rights of women. During these dark ages, a shadowy cloud looms over feminine development. It is not until the renaissance that this haze is cleared away and a return to classical humanism opens the door for empowerment. As society during renaissance period began rediscovering classical thinking, liberal education became available to men and women. An important figure in this educational revival is Laura Cereta. Daughter of an upper-middle-class attorney, Cereta received an education in Latin and developed as a writer and humanist thinker. Her work, â€Å"In Defense of Liberal Education for Women†, had been written to counter growing fears against advancements in rights for women. Cereta attacks the notion that â€Å"extraordinary intellect of the sort one would have thought nature would give†¦ [man]†, was not imparted on to women (Beatty, 309). She defends that â€Å"the philosopher sees with her mind; she furnishes paths with a window of reason through which she can ascend to a state of wareness (Beatty, 309). † This powerful statement is indicative of education women are capable of attaining in this time period. This role of thinker, of philosopher, of humanist had been reserved solely for men for much of western civilization. This shift is another step towards the role of modern women. Beyond educa tion, Cereta work also comments on women in the social order by relating to her contemporaries: â€Å"others love to say cute little things, to hide their feelings behind a mask of tranquility, to indulge in dancing, and lead pet dogs around on a leash (Beatty, 311). This last passage sheds more light on some of the other roles women played during the renaissance. The parallelism from that time period to the modern era is shocking. Had this line been written about women today it would be equally as relevant. As a whole, Laura Cereta’s writing allows an intimate look at women in renaissance society, but more importantly, her work demonstrates a new sense of confidence and destiny not shared by previous women. Throughout the development of western civilization, the roles of women have markedly been transformed. The Code of Hammurabi, Spartan society, and the renaissance revival in education, where just three points that showed this growth. From property to free thinking philosophers, women have held many roles. It is important to consider the progress through the ages, as it is a reflection on society as a whole. References Beatty, J. L. , Johnson, O. A. , Reisbord, J. , Choudhury , M. (2004). Heritage of western civilization: Ancient Civilizations and the Emergence of the West. (Vol. 1). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, Prentice Hall. 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Saturday, December 7, 2019

Alcohol-Related Violence in Sydney

Question: Describe about the Parliamentary note advising the Attorney General with a summary of the research on whether the lock out laws in Kings Cross are an effective way to curb alcohol and drug fuelled violence in Sydeney. Answer: Parliamentary note advising the Attorney General with a summary of the research on whether the lock out laws in Kings Cross are an effective way to curb alcohol and drug fuelled violence. While responding to the widely publicized reports regarding alcohol-related violence in Sydney, particularly in Kings Cross area, a package of reforms was announced by the NSW government which was passed into legislation on 30th Jan, 2014. The most significant among these measures is the creation of a new entertainment 'precinct' where special alcohol licensing conditions will apply. Some of these measures will also apply to the present King's Cross presinct that was created under earlier legislation. Apart from these precinct specific conditions, this package also introduced a ban on take away alcohol sales after 10 pm and it applied to both the shops, clubs and hotels. These provisions have been in effect since 24 February, 2014. In this regard, it has been claimed by the police that the number of savage assaults in the popular nightspots of Sydney have dropped significantly after the introduction of lockout laws. At the same time, it has also been claimed that there is no evidence to suggest that the problem has moved elsewhere (Roth, 2014). However, according to the data collected by the city of Sydney, it may be the result of lesser people partying in Kings Cross and CBD. On the other hand, the police claims that there was a feeling that a positive shift has taken place towards a safer environment. In this regard, the police claim that after the six months of these laws coming into force, only two incidents were reported related with assault causing grievous bodily harm. On the other hand, during the same period in the earlier year, the number of such incidents was 22 (Pilgrim, Gerostamoulos, and Drummer, 2014). During this period, police issued nearly 350 banning orders for Kings Cross. Out of these banning orders, most were short-term orders however, a few were long-term also. The banning orders allowed the police to apply for the removal of a person from Kings Cross percent for up to a year if such person has been convicted of a serious alcohol-related offense in the past. In this way, the police feel that encouraging signs are present to suggest a reduction in intoxication. These lock-out laws were introduced to deal with violence that is related with alcohol after the one punch death of Daniel Christie and Thomas Kelly. According to these laws, the licensed premises in Kings Cross and CBD are required to lockout patrons from 1:30 am and similarly these premises are also required to stop serving alcohol after 3 am (Plunk, 2013). In this matter, it is acknowledged by the police that there were less than people on the streets at night and it has also contributed in a decrease in assaults. In the same way, the research conducted by the city of Sydney on six Saturday nights in March and April revealed that the foot part congestion was less by 84% to 78% in some areas as compared to the level in December 2012. On the basis of CCTV footage and observations by the officers of the Council, it was found that they were lesser people on the streets and at the same time, lesser incidence in the CBD. As a result, concerns have been raised that some businesses may have been forced to close down or struggling to survive after the introduction of these laws (Morgan and McAtamney 2009). As a result, there has been a call for the review of these measures after one year instead of conducting such a review after two years. It has also been argued by the clubs and pubs that these laws can move the alcohol-related violence to areas that are outside the lockout zone. However in this regard, the police claim that although a slight increase in the crowds in these areas has been reported, but there has been no increase in alcohol-related violence in these areas. At the same time, the staff from the hospital in the area informed that a significant decrease has taken place in case of alcohol related presentations at the hospital. However, it still requires to be examined if 'displacement' of violence related with alcohol was an issue. In this regard, some experts believe that it is too soon to evaluate the success of these laws, particularly due to the reason that generally the rate of assault drops after its peak in January. Therefore, it may be too early to evaluate the decrease and data for some more months may be required (Laing, Sendall and Barker, 2013). On the other hand, the Australian Hotels Association, NSW believes that the government may have "moved too quickly" in this matter. It is also claimed by them that too many regulations have been imposed by the government at once and as a result, it is not possible to point out which regulations have been more effective as compared to the others. In the same way, the decision to ban take away liquor sales after 10 pm has also been criticized on the grounds that the pubs and farmers in the country areas have become the 'unintended victims' of the policy (Laslett, 2010). As a result, it can be recommended in the present case that these measures need to be implemented throughout the State. By not doing so, artificial and problematic flow of people may be created towards other entertainment districts which are not well equipped to deal with the late-night patrons. On the other hand, if these measures are implemented throughout the state, people will be going out earlier, instead of going elsewhere and at the same time, it will also ensure that the overall revenue remains the same. References Laing, A.J., M.C. Sendall, and R. Barker, 2013, Alcohol-related violence presenting to the emergency department: is 'glassing' the big issue?, Emerg Med Australas, 25(6): p. 550-7 Laslett, A. et al 2010, The Range and Magnitude of Alcohols Harm to Others, Fitzroy, Victoria: AER Centre for Alcohol Policy Research, Turning Point Alcohol and Drug Centre, Eastern Health, p. 63 Morgan, A. and A. McAtamney 2009, Key issues in alcohol-related violence, Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra Pilgrim, J.L., D. Gerostamoulos, and O.H. Drummer, 2014, "King hit" fatalities in Australia, 2000-2012: the role of alcohol and other drugs, Drug Alcohol Depend, 135: p. 119-32 Plunk, A. 2013, The Persistent Effects of Minimum Legal Drinking Age Laws on Drinking Patterns Later in Life, Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, Volume 37, Issue 3, pages 463469 Roth, L. 2014, Liquor licensing restrictions to address alcohol-related violence in NSW: 2008 to 2014, NSW Parliamentary Research Service