Friday, May 22, 2020

Analysis Of Walt s The Great Gatsby - 1725 Words

Katherine Harner Professor Scheinuck Art 160 1 December 2014 It Was All Started With A Boy â€Å"†¦it was all started by a mouse† (Smith 41). But it actually all started with a boy. On December 5th, 1901, in Chicago, Illinois. Father, Elias Disney, and mother, Flora Call Disney, had a son that they named, Walter Elias Disney. He was one of five children, three boys; Herbert, Raymond, and Roy, and one girl, Ruth. After the birth of Walt, the family moved to Marceline, Missouri where they had a farm. Walt first got his inspirations of drawing through the environment around him. Being wrapped around animals and the nature aspects on a farm, it gave Walt at the early age of seven inspiration to create these small sketches of animals and nature that†¦show more content†¦After returning from his service in France, Walt pursued a career in commercial art instead of getting a high school diploma, leading to his experiments in animation. He first worked for Pesman-Rubin Commercial Art Studio where he was designing letterhead and advertisements. After getting la id off, he found another job at the Kansas City Film Ad Company, where he was educated about animation, producing advertisements prior the movies would begin. He later departed the Film Ad Company in May 1922 with confidence in starting Laugh-O-Gram Films, where he created Alice’s Wonderland. Later, making a series of these films, known, as the Alice Comedies. Walt’s company last for one year and a half and went bankrupt in July 1923. Unlike most people, Walt Disney didn’t give up. Instead, he left Kansas City and headed to Hollywood. At this point, Walt was completely broke. All he had was a loan of $500 from his uncle and his faithful brother, Roy, by his side. With faith, Walt and Roy started the Disney Brothers Studio. They were able to attain a distributor of New York to release the Alice Comedies, which became a high success with popularity. Soon after, it led to the growth in Disney’s staff members along with a brand new studio. In 1927, the New York distributor, Charles Mintz, who had hired all of Disney’s animators, refused a contract to have Walt as his worker and Universal Studios owning

Saturday, May 9, 2020

Book Report Angelas Ashes Essay - 881 Words

Angela’s Ashes by Frank McCourt A Look at Irish Culture during the Depression Era Frank Mc Court, the author of Angela’s Ashes, was born during the Great Depression. A few years after immigrating to the United States because their families believed they would find their fortune here, his Irish family moved back to Ireland in hopes of a better life. They were met with only more hardships in their native country. His book shows the struggle and small joys of daily life with siblings, school friends, and the adults in his life. It also provides much insight into the way the people in Ireland lived at that time. The author tells the story from the viewpoint of Frank, the oldest child of a father whose background in quot;the Northquot;†¦show more content†¦There is also quot;the drinkquot;-- the disease of Irish fathers who spend their weeks wages in the pub on Friday night. (p. 184) Frank’s mother was forced to seek ‘Relief,’ the Irish version of America’s welfare system. She also sought help from the Catholic and Protestant Church in feeding her family. The iron in the book was that help was not given out without an accompanying sermon, in hopes of persuasion to join one or the other. Mc Court depicts those in charge of the Relief system as being biased and unchristian type of people who looked down on those they were in a position to help. (p. 150) There are many amusing stories in the book revolving around the way the young children had to fend for themselves while their parents sought work. In an effort to keep their apartment heated throughout an especially cold winter, the children tore apart the furniture, and when that was gone they began to use the wood from the walls. When the landlord came to see the apartment, he commented that he thought he had rented them a 4-room apartment when it was only a 3-room, not realizing they had torn out an entire wall. (p. 79) Even those relatives who had some money were not always eager to help the family. They were critical of the drunken father and for the mother who continued having children they could not support. Ironically, however, when there was a death in the family, everyone showed upShow MoreRelated Angelas Ashes Essay3577 Words   |  15 Pages Angela’s Ashes Title: nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The title of this book is Angela’s Ashes. The title doesn’t make a lot of sense because the story about Angela’s cremation and her lost ashes is found in part two of the book. However, ashes do appear in the book in relation to Angela. An example of this would be the ashes from Angela’s Woodbine cigarettes. And another example would be Angela sitting next to the ashes from the fireplace during hard times. Author: nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;FrankRead MoreReed Supermarket Case32354 Words   |  130 Pagespublisher any trademark ownership rights in such trademarks, nor does the use of such trademarks imply any afï ¬ liation with or endorsement of this book by such owners. Pearson Education is not responsible for the content of third party internet sites. ISBN 978-0-273-72622-7 British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Hollensen, Svend. Global marketing : a decision-orientedRead MoreLogical Reasoning189930 Words   |  760 PagesDowden This book Logical Reasoning by Bradley H. Dowden is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. That is, you are free to share, copy, distribute, store, and transmit all or any part of the work under the following conditions: (1) Attribution You must attribute the work in the manner specified by the author, namely by citing his name, the book title, and the relevant page numbers (but not in any way that suggests that the book Logical ReasoningRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words   |  656 PagesMauritius 399 67 East Africa 352 1 Trinidad 302 37 Guyana 268 48 Fiji 198 49 Singapore 104 35 94 8 Surinam Total 4,609 Sources: Calculated from data in Galina V. Selegen, â€Å"The First Report on the Recent Population Census in the Soviet Union,† Population Studies 14, no. 1 (1960): 17–27; L. T. Badenhorst, â€Å"The Future Growth of the Population of South Africa and Its Probable Age,† Population Studies 4, no. 1 (1950): 3–46; Angus Maddison’sRead MoreIgbo Dictionary129408 Words   |  518 Pages1904 Ganot published an English, Ibo and French dictionary, based on the Onitsha dialect, and in 1907 Zappa published a French-Igbo dictionary based on a Western Igbo dialect. Northcote W. Thomas devoted four of the six volumes of his Anthropological report on the Ibo-speaking peoples of Nigeria to language, three of them being essentially lexicographic. Part II (1913) consists of an English-Ibo and Ibo-English dictionary, based on the Awka and Onitï€ ¬sha dialects. It has a rather complex and non-phonemic

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Comparing William Blake and William Wordsworth Free Essays

Sonnet 18 In Sonnet 18, William Shakespeare begins by considering what metaphorical comparisons would best reflect the young man, in fact a typical convention of Renaissance poems is to compare beauty and youth with aspects of nature. In the first and in the second stanza he develops the idea of summer: in the first stanza (the introductory part) he wants to compare the young man to a summer day, but he also says that the man is more beautiful and more lovely than a summer day; in fact, he knows, summer can be very short and the weather is changeable: sometimes it’s too hot and sometimes the sun has disappeared, but he can’t be obscured. Then the poet adds that it is also true that, like a real summer, the young man’s youth will not last forever, because it is how nature goes (it’s temporary). We will write a custom essay sample on Comparing William Blake and William Wordsworth or any similar topic only for you Order Now The third stanza starts with an adversative, here the poet concentrates in the man’s beauty and he says that his beauty won’t disappear; not even death can take his beauty, because in poetry the poet is able to preserve the idea of beauty and youth. It is something like a promise: in the world of the poem, the young’s man beauty will never die, but it will go on growing in the minds of readers; Shakespeare wishes to preserve the young man’s beauty against the effects of time. The poem carries the meaning of an Italian or  Petrarchan Sonnet (Petrarchan sonnets typically discuss the love and beauty of a beloved). The theme is the transience of beauty, the poet tries to immortalize the young man’s beauty through his own poetry. Sonnet 130 This is a sonnet written for a dark lady, in which Shakespeare criticizes the idealising tendency of the most Elizabethan love poetry to compare the beloved with nature. Sonnet 130 is clearly a parody of the conventional love sonnet, made popular by Petrarch. In describing his dark lady, he is careful to emphasise how little she corresponds to the conventional idea of beauty of his time; in fact from the sonnet we can understand that the woman is not beautiful: she doesn’t have soft hair, instead she has got black wire hair, she doesn’t have brilliant eyes and red lips , she has dark skin (breasts), moreover he can’t see the colour of the roses in her cheeks and her breath can’t be compared to perfume, her voice is not as pleasant as music and she doesn’t walk like a goddess. For him, however, the fact that she is not conventionally beautiful is an indication of her â€Å"natural† beauty; what fascinates the poet in his lady are the things that make her unique in his eyes, these things make her rare in a world in which the women have to correspond to an ideal notion of beauty. So Shakespeare ends the sonnet by proclaiming his love for his mistress, so he does finally embrace the fundamental theme in Petrarch’s sonnets: total and consuming love. Romeo and Juliet (balcony scene) After seeing Juliet at the Capulet’s house during the feast, Romeo secretly return to see her again: Romeo, hidden amongst the shadows outside Capulet’s house, sees Juliet in the balcony; Juliet, believing that she is alone, professes her love for Romeo and her profound sorrow that he is a Montague. Romeo reveals himself and the lovers speak to each other. Romeo is very poetic when he speaks about Juliet, he is a platonic lover, in fact he describes Juliet as a perfect woman (he idealizes Juliet): he says Juliet is the sun and the moon is jealous, her eyes are far more brighter than the sun, they are so brighter that the birds sing all the time. He describes her using some of the conventions of courtly love and Neo-Platonism found in sonnets of the time. Instead Juliet, even if she has the passion, goes right into the problem, which is the name; she is more realistic and she’s worried because Romeo shouldn’t be there and if someone sees him he could die. The dominating image in Romeo and Juliet is light: Romeo associates Juliet with sunlight and stars and the light emanating from angels. Shakespeare’s works are written in Early Modern English; the language used by Romeo and Juliet, particularly Romeo, is often lyrical. How to cite Comparing William Blake and William Wordsworth, Essay examples

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

The Efficacy of Spirituality Group

The research is focused on the efficacy of the spirituality group in chemical dependency treatment program. It has already been proven that religion and spirituality have positive impact on human mental health (Moritz et al, 2006).Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on The Efficacy of Spirituality Group specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Being more powerful tool in the relation to motivating people to give up chemical substances consumption, spirituality is considered to be more effective as in this case personal convictions are taken into account, not those one which are established by the society. Individualized treatment has always been considered as the most effective one (Walker, Cole Logan, 2008). The research shows that personal motivation is an effective tool to prevent people from relapses in the future (Simpson Joe, 1993). Moreover, the spirituality is going to reduce the length of treatment (Knight et al. 2000) and cognitive engagement (Broome, Simpson, Joe 1999) in comparison with other methods used for treating chemically abused patients. We also expect that the difference between those who are treated by means of spirituality and by means of traditional methods is going to be significant. The main value of the research is that the hypotheses have been supported. It shows that chemical dependency treatment program has an opportunity to use the spirituality method for treatment. The better results are going to be considered as well as help 60% of Americans who consume illicit drugs (Doweiko, 2009). It is crucial to consider the consequences if the hypotheses had not been supported. If the hypotheses we offer were not supported, so another research should be conducted in the sphere of chemical dependency treatment programs. This would mean that we had managed to do much and had eliminated one possibility from the list. The effectiveness of those will be raised. Moreover, the practical use of this method will lead to creation of many different methods which may be used for treating chemically addicted people. The evaluation of each of those would help us create a perfect methodology for using in practice.Advertising Looking for research paper on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The findings of our research support the results obtained from the research conducted by such scientists as Broome, Simpson Joe (1999), Knight et al. (2000), and Simpson Joe (1993). Moreover, our findings can be used for further research in the sphere of treating chemically addicted people. In conclusion, spirituality method for treating chemically addicted people is considered to be the most effective in a number of reasons. First, spirituality motivates people to cure for chemical addiction. Second, spirituality is a powerful motivation and as a result more effective as people are motivated not by the standard s created in the society but by means of the personal considerations which affect people in high strength. The results obtained while the research may be used for creating a chemical dependency treatment program. There may be created a lot of methodologies on the basis of the fact that spirituality is considered to be the most effective method for treating chemically addicted people. Moreover, a research may be conducted devoted to the power of influence of spirituality and motivation on people in different age. This may help identify the age when treatment is the most effective. Reference List Broome, K. M., Simpson, D. D., Joe, G. W. (1999). Patient and program attributes related to treatment process indicators in DATOS. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 57 (2), 127-135. Doweiko, H. E. (2009). Concepts of chemical dependency. Belmont, CA: Brookes/Cole Cengage Learning. Knight, C. H., Fitzpatrick, J. L., Logue, D. N., Platt, D. J. (2000). Efficacy of two non-antibiotic therapies and t opical liniment, against bovine staphylococcal mastitis. Vet Rec, 146 (11), 311-316.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on The Efficacy of Spirituality Group specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Moritz, S., Quan, H., Rickhi, B., Liu, M., Angen, M., Vintila, R., Sawa, R., Soriana, J., Toews, J. (2006). A home-study based spirituality education program decreases emotional distress and increases quality of life – a randomized, controlled study. Alternative Therapies, 12 (6), 26-35. Simpson, D. D., Joe, G. W. (1993). Motivation as a predictor of early dropout from drug abuse treatment. Psychotherapy, 30 (2), 357-368. Walker, R., Cole, J., Logan, T. K. (2008). Identifying client-level indicators of recovery among dui, criminal justice, and non-criminal justice referral. Substance Use Misuse, 43, 1785-1801. This research paper on The Efficacy of Spirituality Group was written and submitted by user Lina L. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Friday, March 20, 2020

The of Professionalism Essays

The of Professionalism Essays The of Professionalism Essay The of Professionalism Essay Law Enforcement What is considered professionalism in law enforcement? The Five-Xis Is based on five traits: Integrity, Intellect, Industry, Initiative, and Impact. Integrity, the first of the Five-Xis, Is defined by doing right when no one Instructs you to do so. Integrity Is considered the highest of human achievements. It Is represented through core values such as trustworthiness, courage, honesty, tolerance, and self-discipline. The second of the Five-Xis, Intellect, is the credibility of a law enforcement leader. This knowledge is in three parts: procedures, discretion, and conceptual attitudes relevant to police education (C. A. R. P. E. ). The third is Industry, which is one of the most important examples someone in law enforcement can set. They are the ones who set the pace for the industry. They are those who possess work habits and are activity driven. They need to realize that work in a fundamental sense is Just applied effort. Next is Initiative, which action is essential. They need to seize the moment and take control. It Is not watching and waiting, but seeing and doing. There are three types of people In the world: those who watch It happen, those who make it happen, and those who wonder what happened. To have Annihilative you have to make It happen and problem solve despite the criticism you might receive. The last Is Impact, which relies on confidence, competence, and a positive attitude. They have a positive Impact on there.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

SEVIS - visa de estudiante F-1 y de intercambio J-1

SEVIS - visa de estudiante F-1 y de intercambio J-1    El SEVIS es un formulario que deben cubrir y pagar los extranjeros que desean estudiar en Estados Unidos (F-1, F-3 y M-1) y los que aplican a una visa de intercambio J-1. Quà © es el SEVIS Es un programa del gobierno americano que sirve para controlar las escuelas, universidades y programas de intercambio que acogen a extranjeros y tambià ©n a estos durante su estancia en Estados Unidos. Es un sistema basado en internet que da acceso a diferentes agencias gubernamentales para que puedan tener conocimiento al momento sobre cierta informacià ³n sobre los extranjeros en programas de estudio o de intercambio. A quià ©nes aplica A los estudiantes que van a realizar a estudios para estudiar inglà ©s, universitarios, de posgrado y vocacionales para lo cual precisan de una visa F-1, F-3 para estudiantes fronterizos, o una M-1.  Tambià ©n aplica a la gran mayorà ­a de solicitantes de visas de intercambio J-1. Si se quiere estudiar high school, conviene entender cules son todas las opciones de visa. Cunto se tiene que pagar y cà ³mo Las tarifas actuales son de $200 para los titulares de las visas tipo F y M. Los de las visas J abonarn $180 con excepcià ³n de au pairs o nià ±eras y los participantes en los programas de trabajar y viajar en verano o que viajan a Estados Unidos como monitores de campamento, ya que sà ³lo deben abonar $35. El pago puede hacerse por internet en una pgina oficial rellenando el formulario I-901, siendo necesario tener una tarjeta de crà ©dito con la que hacer el pago. Al momento se recibe el justificante de haber pagado y debe imprimirse. Tambià ©n puede pagarse mediante Western Union o cheque en dà ³lares, pero es necesario que sea de un banco en los Estados Unidos. Adems, hay que tener en cuenta que las personas admitidas en ms de un programa debern abonar la tarifa para cada uno de ellos. Quià ©nes no tienen que pagar el SEVIS Las personas con visas derivadas, esto es, con una F-2, M-2 o J-2. Son los familiares directos del titular de la visa que viajan con à ©l o ella a Estados Unidos. Adems, no estn obligados a pagar esta cuota los extranjeros que aplican por una visa J-1 cuando à ©sta forme parte de un programa gubernamental de educacià ³n o de intercambio. Si no se est seguro de si se est dentro de esta categorà ­a se puede verificar el formulario D-2019, donde pone nà ºmero de programa si à ©ste empieza con la letra y el nà ºmero G-1, G-2 o G-3 entonces no hay que pagar por el SEVIS. Por à ºltimo, tampoco debern hacer este pago las personas con un documento D-2019 (para los que tienen las visas J-1) o un I-20 (para los estudiantes) que fue emitido con anterioridad al primero de septiembre de 2004. Cundo se debe hacer el pago Una vez que se recibe el formulario I-20 (estudiantes) o el DS-2019 (extranjeros en un programa de intercambio) pero antes de solicitar la visa y, por supuesto, antes de acudir a la oficina consular o Embajada americana para la entrevista. De hecho, al acudir a las instalaciones americanas debe llevarse un justificante del pago. Posibles problemas a tener en cuenta Adems, el pago del SEVIS tienen una validez de 12 meses. Si por cualquier razà ³n la peticià ³n de visa es rechazada y se vuelve a aplicar en el plazo de un aà ±o, no habr que pagar de nuevo por tal concepto (de SEVIS, sà ­ habr que abonar de nuevo la cuota del visado). Por à ºltimo, si no se consigue la visa porque la aplicacià ³n es rechazada no se recuperar el dinero pagado por el SEVIS (ni tampoco por haber aplicado por el visado). Adems, para obtener una visa no inmigrante, como la de estudiante o intercambio, y tambià ©n para renovarla es necesario cumplir dos requisitos: ser elegible para la visa y ser admisible a Estados Unidos. Si no se cumplen, habr problemas. Incluso puede ser negado el ingreso a USA por el oficial del control migratorio, aà ºn cuando se tenga una visa vigente. Estas son 20 causas que pueden convertir a una persona en inelegible (son comunes a la visa de turista) y estas son 22 que convierten a un extranjero en inadmisible.   Si se obtiene la visa, es muy importante estar en todo momento en situacià ³n de estatus migratorio vlido. Para ello evitar situaciones que pueden parecer poco relevantes pero que, en realidad, tienen consecuencias migratorias muy graves, por ejemplo, la posesià ³n de marihuana (mariguana, cannabis). De interà ©s para estudiantes internacionales (visa F-1) Estudiar en Estados Unidos es caro, por lo que es importante intentar obtener becas, por ejemplo, estas  13 universidades de à ©lite con admisiones need-blind (becas con todo -o casi-pagado) becan a todo tipo de estudiantes que cumplen los requisitos, incluidos los extranjeros. Y precisamente porque es tan caro, los estudiantes procuran realizar sus estudios en buenas instituciones. Y para los curiosos, à ©stas son las que conforman la famosa  Ivy League. Adems, para estudiar en un college o universidad de EE.UU. es necesario convalidar los estudios en organizaciones reconocidas por dichas instituciones. Una vez que se obtiene el tà ­tulo es frecuente que deba obtenerse la apostilla de la Haya para homologar los estudios en el paà ­s de origen del estudiante. De interà ©s para personas con visa J-1 Hay muchos programas bajo el paraguas de las J-1. Una de las que despiertan mayor interà ©s es la de  mà ©dicos para estudiar la residencia en Estados Unidos, pero hay muchas ms. Finalmente, la visa  visa O-1  puede servir de opcià ³n a la J-1 en algunos casos para algunos programas. Es importante familiarizarse con las posibles opciones segà ºn el caso de cada persona. Testimonial Lee esta entrevista a Miguel Pà ©rez, primero estudiante becado universitario y ahora residente permanente. Entre otras cosas muestra de una manera clara cà ³mo es posible ir cambiando de programas, siempre legalmente y conservando el estatus migratorio.   Este es un artà ­culo informativo. No es asesorà ­a legal.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Research and evaluate one or two works of twentieth-century literary Paper

And evaluate one or two works of twentieth-century literary criticism that take a psychoanalytic approach to Shakespea - Research Paper Example Perhaps some of the most intriguing insights have come as a result of the psychoanalytical school of critical investigation. Sigmund Freud himself analyzed the play advancing a number of theoretical notions on Hamlet’s subconscious and Oedipal relation to his mother. This essay considers ‘The Oedipus-Complex as An Explanation of Hamlet's Mystery:?A Study in Motive’ a famous psychoanalytic interpretation of Hamlet advanced by theorist Ernest Jones and work by Sigmund Freud in analyzing Hamlet. One of Sigmund Freud’s primary theories and a central element of psychoanalysis is the understanding that man is affected by a repressive urge towards love for their mother. Referred to as the Oedipal Complex, Freud indicates that men are then motivated by an urge to murder their father and marry their mother, except this is generally repressed. Hamlet makes a brilliant representation of this theory in action, as Hamlet’s complex relation between his mother and her new-husband, also his step-father, Claudius constitutes a significant element of the play’s narrative structure. This interpretation is not lost on Jones, who argues that in large part Hamlet’s intensity of conflict with Claudius is rooted in these psychological urges. Jones writes, â€Å"Hamlet's second guilty wish had thus also been realized by his uncle, namely to procure the fulfilment of the first -- the possession of the mother -- by a personal deed, in fact by murder of the father† (Jones). In these regards, Claudius has actually usurped and realized Hamlet’s repressed childhood desire, namely the wish to murder his father and marry his mother. It’s believed that the conflict associated with their relationship is then a direct result of this unconscious psychological urges. While Jones argues that a great degree of Hamlet’s actions are motivated by these unconscious Oedipal desires, there remains a number of questions related to t his psychoanalytic examination. One of the predominant questions one wonders is that if Hamlet is so consumed by his desire to marry Gertrude, and Claudius has usurped his ability to accomplish this repressed desire, than why does Hamlet not simply murder Claudius. It’s clear that Hamlet is willing to go to these extremes, yet throughout the play he refrains from this action. In these regards, Jones argues that Freud believes Hamlet’s unwillingness to murder Claudius is related to an unconscious unwillingness. For Jones, if Hamlet were to kill Claudius it would be killing off this unconscious childhood fantasy, and in doing so, it would be in a sense removing an aspect of himself and internal constitution. Freud himself considered this issue and wrote, Hamlet is able to do anything -- except take vengeance on the man who did away with his father and took that father's place with his mother, the man who shows him the repressed wishes of his own childhood realized. Thus the loathing which should drive him on to revenge is replaced in him by self-reproaches, by scruples of conscience, which remind him that he himself is literally no better than the sinner whom he is to punish. Here I have translated into conscious terms what was bound to remain unconscious in Hamlet's mind.... In addition to demonstrating an overriding interpretation for Hamlet’s unwillingness to murder Claudius, this passage from Freud also contributes to interpreting Hamlet’s overall motivations throughout the pla

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Anthropological analysis and conceptual synthesis Article

Anthropological analysis and conceptual synthesis - Article Example The society is herein described as one filled with male chauvinism, not ready to tolerate the women’s faith related stands. The saints were very firm on their maintenance of chastity and could even pray to God to make them ugly so that they could protect their chastity. For instance, St. Wilgefortis prayed for ugliness, and she was granted a man’s beard (Winston, Para 4). The male chauvinism however saw her murdered by her father. Others were like St. Lucia whose eyes were torn out for disappointing her family. These examples show that the women believed in their course and bravely stepped out of the societal norms (Winston, Para 6). From the article, it can be seen certain themes can be drawn. One of the themes is religion in which the saints are firmly rooted. The religion brings about the other theme of power whereby the males are seen to possess in plenty. They, however, misuse their power by killing the faithful females. The theme of male dominance is further shown by the linearity of mobility and recreation in which are based on social hierarchies. This is described in the Ghanam who describes the lives of brother and a sister from a low-income neighborhood in Egypt. The brother is drawn as the one dictating the mobility, suggesting male dominance (Ghannam 790-800). Summarizing Ghanam’s article, various methods supporting the solving of reconfiguration of inequalities can be explained. Farha Ghannam explains this by using the example of a brother and a sister who come from a low-income neighborhood in Egypt. Throughout the article, Ghanam describes the methods of liminality of mobility which illustrate social hierarchies. The methods include inequalities referring to mobility, class, gender and embodiment. Eyebrows." Were Some Catholic Saints Transgender? Berkeley Show Raises Eyebrows. 6 Nov. 2014. Web. 23 Feb. 2015.

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Tourism Analysis Of Disneyland Resort Paris

Tourism Analysis Of Disneyland Resort Paris Disneyland Resort Paris (formerly known as Euro Disney) is the fourth of the Walt Disney theme parks, built to follow the success of Disneyland in California, Walt Disney World in Florida, and Tokyo Disneyland in Japan. It is located in central France, making it accessible by a two-hour plane flight to more than 300 million people. Disneyland Paris is a holiday and recreation resort in Marne-la-Vallà ©e, a new town in the eastern suburbs of Paris, France. The complex is located 32 kilometers (20 mi) from the centre of Paris and lies for the most part on the territory of the commune of Chessy, Seine-et-Marne. After Tokyo Disneyland opened to great success in 1983, the executives of the Walt Disney Company began plans for a European extension. The company considered many possible locations, but soon chose Marne-la-Vallee, a French town, as the site. Disney CEO Michael Eisner signed the first contract with the French government in 1985, and construction on Euro Disney began in 1988. Th e information center Espace Euro Disney opened in 1990, keeping the public informed about the ongoing work. The park opened in April 1992, and although 500,000 visitors were expected, only 50,000 came. For the first three years, the park reported large financial losses. Attendance was poor, employees reported high dissatisfaction and the French press grew more appalled at the presence of an America-centric park in their country. In 1994, the park was renamed Disneyland Resort Paris in order to dissociate it from the negative press surrounding Euro Disney. In 1995, Space Mountain was added to the parks attractions, and the park turned its first-ever profit. The park is still dubiously profitable. Even with much of its debt written off, the company reports billion-dollar deficits: specifically, $2 billion in 2007. However, in 2008, the park was the most-visited attraction in Europe and reports more than 15 million visitors every year receiving more visitors than the Louvre and the Eif fel Tower combined (Christian Sylt, The Independent, 2008). Why was Euro Disney performing poorly during its first year of operation? Recommend and propose strategies and suggestions to improve the situation? Michael Eisner, CEO of the Walt Disney World Company, once said, Fantasy is very hard work. Eisner was referring to the intensive labor that goes on behind-the-scenes within the Disney Company to create the magic and fantasy which have become synonymous with the Disney brand. From the founders humble beginnings (Walter Elias Disney) creating animated cartoons in the 1920s, to the multi- facetted corporation Disney has developed into, hard work has always been the key ingredient to the success of this entertainment empire. However, hard work does not always lead to success, especially when international expansion occurs. On April 12, 1992, Disney officially opened Euro Disney, a $4 billion USD, and 4,400 acre resort located in Marne- la-Vallà ©e, France. Despite over 7 years of planning and countless hours of research, Euro Disney quickly developed in one of the most costly mistakes in company history. In the first 2 years of operation, Euro Disney lost close to $1.03 billion USD and was forecasted to lose approximately $1 million USD a day for the foreseeable future (Lyn Burgoyne, Euro Disneyland Venture, 2001). The main reason why Euro Disney performed poorly during its first year of operation was due to several factors such as European recession, Cultural differences and Marketing. Just as Euro Disney opened, Europe was in the middle of an economic slump. Disney felt that they could overcome this issue however; High interest rates and the devaluation of several currencies against the Franc caused Europeans to have little spending power at that time. That results in a reduction in disposable income among the French population. Many of the other countries in Europe were experiencing a similar downward slope during the period. Disney did not anticipate the huge differences between themselves as consumers and the Europeans especially the French. The entire resort was designed along the same guidelines as the original Disneyland (Rohese Taylor, Disneyland Paris Case Study, 2000). Much of the reasoning behind this strategic approach can be attributed to the success Disney had with the opening of Tokyo Disneyland. According to (Marty Sklar, Vice Chairman and Principle Creative Executive of Walt Disney Imagineering), The Japanese told us from the beginning, Dont Japanese us. What that meant was, we came here for Disney. We came here for America. Dont give us Japan, we know Japan. Disney determined that the Europeans would want the same as the Japanese an Americanized Disneyland. However, the general sentiment among the French was one of indignation at what some called cultural imperialism. Therefore, Euro Disney was not accepted among the European culture. Euro Disney was marketed incorrectly to both the consumers and the media. The views of the French were not considered when marketing strategies were created. The resort was marketed in the American-style of à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦bigness and extravagance. Instead, Euro Disney should have concentrated on the emotional aspect, marketing that guest would have a unique, extraordinary experience they would not forget (Lyn Burgoyne, Walt Disney Companys Euro Disneyland Venture, 2001). To improve the situation, there is a need for Disney to take control of the management decisions and analyzing issues and problems based on their own practice and not to use some team to analyze the problem and have it presented that is way outside the management. Thus, there is also the imperative need to understand and execute appropriate plan of actions that will bridge the gap of culture difference such as knowing what are the characteristics and attitudes of the European people in terms of the nature of business considering what will work on both sides and achieve good marketing strategies that would have connection to promotion and advertising process. The fact that marketing issues was present, it may be proper for Disney to consider strategies that will cater to resolving such issues and probably focus on useful market tactics. The Euro Disney should implement marketing mix strategies which are the price, product, place and promotion. Promotional discounts for families on weekends will fit in to the European culture and planning more ways on how to make business better despite of business conflicts will cater to resolving those issues. Furthermore regarding the environment and location factors, Disney can choose such locations that have strong sales magnet, something that sales and profits are manageable and that possibly, Disney can opt for transfer of Euro-Disney location considering that all aspects of costs and expenses have to be minimal and does not overspend the resources and the need for a justifiable budget is important as high risks within the management and its process may be evident any time. Moreover, Disney can impl ement and apply flexible labor systems that will be adaptable to the situation, and is accepted by the French laborers and thus, the need also to cut down costs and manage risks and small changes properly to have balance of business. Question 2 To what degree do you consider that these factors were a) foreseeable and b) controllable by either Euro Disney or the parent company, Disney? The factors that played into the unsuccessful first year for Euro Disney could easily be foreseen by either euro Disney or the parent company. The same goes to the factor that Euro Disney and its parent company is controllable. It is evident that French has develop a sense of hostility towards the plans as it was stated in the case study, that they did not want American imperialism invading their country and culture. The worse thing is that Euro Disney worked in the arrogant nature of the American thinking. In this I mean, they expected the Europeans to act as Americans and thrive over this newly designed theme park, thus making things a lot worse. (John Graham, International Marketing, 2002) stated that Paris theater director Arianne Mnouchkin became famous for her description of Euro Disney as a Cultural Chernobyl. In the case study, it was also stated that in the fall of 1989, during a visit to Paris, French columnist pelted Michael Eisner with eggs. The joke going around that tim e was, For Euro Disney to adapt properly to France, all seven of Snow Whites dwarfs should be named Grumpy. The French was disappointed during the early advertising because the advertisements focus more on the size and glitz rather than the types of rides and attractions (Phillip Cateora, 2002). Everyone knows advertisements play a major part that influences the society today and affects our everyday life. Nowadays it seems that the only way to avoid any form of advertising is to isolate oneself and live in a cave but not all advertising is negative and bad. It is found almost everywhere such as just by walking on the street, driving a car or watching TV. (Ference, 2004) reports Every surface that could possibly have an ad slapped on it such as clothing, buses, taxis, myriad walls and billboards, even the snow you ski on now hawks something. Every advertiser or company must do more than just make a product, give it an attractive price and offer it to the consumer, communicate and promote it to their current and future customers, they have to advertise it. Therefore, the ability to foresee that the advertising was getting a negative response was obvious and this could have been somewhat controlled by Euro Disney or the parent company. Advertising bombards us everywhere but it is not without control and regulation by the government, businesses and citizens. This opens one of the major issues in advertising, the question of law and ethics. Advertising should be carefully controlled. Society needs to make sure that people are not taken in by misleading advertisements in which Euro Disney make a huge mistake emphasizing the glitz and size instead of different rides and attractions. This can be controllable if Euro Disney followed principles such as telling the truth, showing the truth in which the product should look exactly the same way as the consumers will purchase it. The general impression should as well be truthful because Advertising is judged not by what it says, but what the consumers thinks it says (Roman Mass, 2003, p. 200-202). Other important factors that managers could have foreseen included the approaching European recession, the Gulf War in 1991 and increased interest rates. External factors that affected business also included the devaluation of other currencies against the franc and competitions that drew the attention of European tourists. These competitions were the worlds fair in Seville and the 1992 Olympics, which was held in Barcelona (Phillip Cateora and John Graham, p. 615). It was apparent that the managers of Euro Disney and Disney separated themselves from their counterparts with many levels and departments. These include the government, banks and other parties that were involved. Some of the Disney managers admitted that they were arrogant and that their attitudes were forceful and controlling. It was as if all would agree to do it the way they suggested, then everything would be just fine and everyone would be happy (Phillip Cateora and John Graham, p. 614). Question 3 Evaluate the cross-cultural marketing skills of Disney. The origins of cross-cultural analysis in the 19th century world of colonialism was strongly grounded in the concept of cultural revolution, which claimed that all societies progress through an identical series of distinct evolutionary stages. Culture consists of language, ideas, beliefs, customs, taboos, codes, institutions, tools, techniques, and works of art, rituals, ceremonies and symbols. It has played a crucial role in human evolution, allowing human beings to adapt the environment to their own purposes rather than depend solely on natural selection to achieve adaptive success. Every human society has its own particular culture, or socio cultural system (Encyclopedia Britannica). Cross-cultural marketing is international marketing on a personal level. It means considering cultural differences when planning marketing campaigns and media, realizing the need for a balance between localization and globalization and most importantly, implementing strategies that respect differences while seeking to unify brand messages. The problem with Euro Disney was that they did not utilize the cross-cultural marketing skills. Based on the case study, Disney executives were told that the French did not eat breakfast so that the meal was downsized but surprisingly the French do eat breakfast. 2,500 breakfasts were served in a restaurant that only held 350 people. They also discovered that the French did not just want croissants and coffee, they wanted bacon and eggs (Phillip Cateora and John Graham, p. 615). This showed that the cross-cultural skills were not employed such as the misinterpreted of data and wrong information retrieved during the environmental scanning of the elements of the European culture. The managers should have known that Europeans were more energetic and will certainly covered more of the Euro Disney theme park and rides than those in the western hemisphere. In contrast to Disneys American parks where visitors typically stay at least three days, Euro Disney is at most a two day visit. The Eu ropean vacations were not examined so the theme park did not see the profits and success as hoped. Americans take short breaks but they take them more often. However, Europeans take one month holiday. The American managers were naÃÆ' ¯ve that they thought the Europeans would change their one month tradition and adopt the Americans shorter yet more frequent time off but that did not happen. The French schedule remained the same as they would close the office and factory during the entire month of August. These factors should have been considered. Cross-cultural marketing would have been extremely useful but the parent companys executives were being quite ethnocentric and it cost a great price (Phillip Cateora and John Graham, p. 615). Needless to say, their cross-cultural skills were unsatisfactory; in fact nonexistent is more appropriate to say. Had they had any skills of this sort, the beginning would have been a success and not such a failed start. As we now understand, the Europeans have to be attuned to the nuances of culture so that a new culture can be viewed objectively, evaluated, and appreciated. Just because a culture is different does not make it wrong. Euro Disney marketers should understand how their own American-style cultures influence their assumptions of another culture (John L. Graham, The Global Environment of Global Markets). Question 4 Do you think the new theme park would have encountered the same problems if a location in Spain had been selected? Discuss Spain, a country located in south-western Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, between Portugal and France covers a total area of 505,957 sq km. Spain has 4,964 km of coastline. Besides five other places of sovereignty on and off the coast of Morocco, Spain consists of 17 administrative regions, 15 of which are on mainland Spain. Spain occupies four-fifths of the Iberian Peninsula and is a land of immense geographical diversity. It offers the tourist a great deal. Spains coastline has long since been a magnet for visitors but in recent years more and more people are spending holiday time, exploring beautiful and cultural Spain, away from the sea and sand. Spain has everything from lush, green forests and mountain ranges, through to endless arid plains and long, sandy beaches (Idealspain, 2010). Since the 1960s and the invention of the package holiday, Spain has always been a top tourist destination. There are few areas of Spain that have not seen the effect of tourism. Spain has adapted to cater for tourists and every area offers something different. Northern Spain offers a different type of holiday with lush green forests, un-spoilt nature reserves and clean rivers. This part of Spain has adapted to offer nature holidays and activity holidays, based on the rivers or within the nature reserves. Hotels tend to be more individual and have rural locations. Beach holidays have always been popular in Spain with the attraction of the wonderful climate, clean beaches and ample hotel facilities (Idealspain, 2010). If the location selected by Disney is in Spain, it would have been met with less criticism and is believed the cultural differences will play a huge role in its success. As I mentioned earlier, Spain is also one of the top tourists attraction countries in Europe. Disney would still have to learn the customs and the culture of Spain and incorporate them into the development, implementation and operation of a new theme park. The work habits of the Americans is totally different from Spain in which the Spains main concern is focus on life and family first whereas the Americans focus more on themselves and individuality, not the group. This suggests that if Disney theme park is in Spain at least the Spanish which gives top priorities to the families will often bring them to the theme park. (Tom Strong, Spanish Cultural Commentator) gives his view of the differences between Spain and the U.S.A. In the U.S.A., a newborn baby gets a social security number. In Spain, the newborn gets added t o the Libro de Familia. In Spain, it is not at all uncommon for children to stay at home until age 30 whereas in the U.S.A. they would be tagged with the word loser. International marketing is all about culture and what we are able to do in marketing to a particular foreign product such as Disneyland to market its theme park is shaped by the cultural variables of the country as well as the great importance to understanding the Spanish culture. The geographical conditions of Spain provide sunshine all year round and milder winter temperatures. The advantages are that it may attract potential customers form the northern Africa and the Middle East because of its wonderful climate. In terms of its purchasing power, total population and its density it wont lose to the French counterpart. The (Central Intelligence Agency World Factbook, 2010) stated that the Spain purchasing power for the year 2009 is $1.367 trillion and its French counterparts is $2.113 trillion and the GDP for Spain is $33,700 whereas the French is $32,800. As a member of the European Union, travel to the southern state already a tourist center in the Union, will yet provide more rea son for the launch of Euro Disney. The entry ticket should cover the cost of the Spanish sunshine, sympathy and service, unlike the rest of Europe. Question 5 If you were the business development manager, what would be the major consideration you would go through before selecting a location for the next Disneyworld? From your discussion select a location you think will be the next Disneyland site. As a business development manager, I will have to take into consideration about some in depth knowledge and analysis about a countrys background before selecting the location for the next Disneyworld. There are many factors in the macro-environment that will affect the decisions of the managers of Disney. Tax changes, new laws, trade barriers, demographic change and government policy changes are all examples of macro change that will help Disneyworld to know more about the foreign market conditions and the external forces. To help analyze these factors I will categorize them using the PESTEL model. Political factors may refer to the government policy such as the degree of intervention in the economy. What goods and services does a government want to provide? To what extent does it believe in subsidizing firms? What are its priorities in terms of business support? Political decisions can impact on many vital areas for business such as the education of the workforce, the health of the nation and the quality of the infrastructure of the economy such as the road and rail system (Aguilar, F.J., Scanning the business environment, 1967). Economic factors include interest rates, taxation changes, economic growth, inflation and exchange rates. As we all know a shift in economic can have a major impact on a firms behavior. For instance higher interest rates may deter investment because it costs more to borrow a strong currency may make exporting more difficult because it may raise the price in terms of foreign currency inflation may provoke higher wage demands from employees (Aguilar, F.J., Scanning the business environment, 1967). Social factors are changes in social trends which can impact on the demand for products and the availability and willingness of individuals to work. In the UK, for example, the population has been ageing. This has increased the costs for firms who are committed to pension payments for their employees because their staffs are living longer. The ageing population also has impact on demand for example; demand for sheltered accommodation and medicines have increased whereas demand for toys is falling (Aguilar, F.J., Scanning the business environment, 1967). Environmental factors include the weather and climate change. Changes in temperature can impact on tourism industry such as Disneyland. With major climate changes occurring due to global warming and with greater environmental awareness this external factor is becoming a significant issue for firms to consider. The growing desire to protect the environment is having an impact on many industries such as the travel and transportation industries for example, more taxes being placed on air travel and the success of hybrid cars and the general move towards more environmentally friendly products and processes is affecting demand patterns and creating business opportunities (Aguilar, F.J., Scanning the business environment, 1967). After the extensive analysis of these major external forces, I would think the next Disneyland site should be in Canada. I think it should be top in priority because Canada is rich in history, landscapes and its aboriginal cultures. Canada is a country with much diversity as it has mountains, national park and alpine forest. According to the Nation Brand Index (Anholt and GfK Roper research agencies, 2008) that measures the worlds perception of 50 nations by interviewing 20,000 adults from 20 countries, the friendliest nation in the world is Canada. Canada has hosted several high-profile international sporting events, including the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal, the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary, and the 2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup. Canada is the host nation for the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver and Whistler, British Columbia (The Vancouver Organizing Committee for the 2010 Olympic and Paralympics Winter Games, 2009) which we can see is obvious that it is a place for major tour ists attraction which can bring advantages for Disneyland.. This scientific approach to friendliness may seem a bit formal, but indeed, the Canadians are really quite hospitable, kind people and are truly worthy of honors. Many Europeans and Americans travel to this country as it is less expensive if compared to the rest of Europe. The Europeans are most likely to head there during august, the people from the United States usually head up during spring break, and many companies offer trips to Canada as incentives, bonuses and conferences. Visitors from central and South America also visited Canada. There is an influx of expatriates moving to Canada as many want to go there to escape the Asian life and as well to pursue The American Dream. Having stated all of this, it is still very important to that the tunnel vision of ethnocentrism be avoided. Although there are advantages and reasons supporting why Disney can do well with its current operation style because they are neighboring countries, Canadas culture, beliefs and morals still vary. Like other countries, Canada is not considered to be a country of workaholics as the United States is stereotyped to be. The family or group is still top priority versus the Americans view of individual accomplishment being the top goal. It is important to learn from the mistakes that were made when Euro Disney was started. Having offices and managers from the country will be detrimental. Incorporating Canadas culture and examining the tourists activities, practices and trends will be crucial to the making or breaking of a Disney in Canada. Conclusion Euro Disney has greatly enhanced their product since the troubled beginnings in 1992. During this period, many key lessons were learned about the relationship between culture and product offering. These lessons learned became the basis for future development in the European market. Today, the Disneyland Paris Resort is marginally profitable and is experiencing high, yet stagnant, attendance rates. It would be presumptuous to label the resort a success, especially since its net total loss is still over $700 million. However, changes in the marketing and design of the resort have led to profitability and gradual acceptance among the European citizens. In order to increase profitability and attendance, three factors must be achieved: product marketing must be increased, the current marketing strategy must be enhanced and ethnocentric obstacles must be overcome. There exists long-term optimism for the future of Euro Disney due to the strong foundation it has developed over its 10 years o f existence, the strong financial backing of the investors, and its plans for future development within the European culture. With proper strategic planning and a relentless pursuit to continue to learn and adapt to the European culture, Disneyland Paris will be a successful resort. Bibliography Aguilar, F.J. (1967), Scanning the business environment. New York: Macmillan. Cateora, Phillip Graham, John (2002), International Marketing: Eleventh Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill. [Online] CIA The World Fact book (2010)., Accessed on February 18, 2010. [Online] CIA The World Fact book (2010)., Accessed on February 19, 2010. Della Cava, Marco (October 10, 1999), Theme parks are staking bigger claims in Europe. Prada, Paulo Orwall, Bruce (2002), Mickeys Bosses Learn From Past Mistakes in Opening New Park in France. Dow Jones Interactive Business. Schneider, Mike (2001), Theme Parks Adapt to Nations Cultures; Disney, Other Firms Look Outside North America for New Markets. Dow Jones Interactive Business. [Online] Idealguides Ltd Group of Companies (2010)., Accessed on February 20, 2010. [Online] Sylt, Christian (2008), Magic results: Euro Disney plans new hotels., Accessed on February 21, 2010. [Online] La-Vallee, Marne and Chu, Jeff (2002), Happily Ever After?,9171,901020325-218398,00.html, Accessed on February 21, 2010.

Friday, January 17, 2020

Economics Commentary †Russian Quota on US Pork and Indian Government Tax on cars Essay

A quota is a physical limit on the number or value of goods that can be imported into a country. This is one of the few protectionist measures that countries in order to protect their own domestic industries and is a measure that has been taken up by Russia, as seen in the article. Russia has reduced its quota for American pork from 750,000 tonnes to 600,000 tonnes. This is because Russia wishes to become more self-sufficient in producing pork and thus improve their pork industry. As said in the article, this will be a big blow to the American producers of pork who already trying to recover from poor demand and prices, as well as high input costs. The effect of this reduced quota can be seen in Fig.1 below. As can be seen, the quota has been decreased from QD2-QS2 at a value of 750,000 tonnes to QD3-QS3 at a value of 600,000 tonnes. The deadweight loss (represented by the shaded area) has, as a result, increased from ABC to EBD and this is partly where the problem of quotas lies. The shaded area represents the inefficiency of the domestic producers and by decreasing the number of US exports coming in, they are increasing the reliance on domestic producers who may be more inefficient in comparison to the American producers. What could be potentially seen is an increased loss of world efficiency as the domestic producers would produce pork for higher minimum revenue than the American producers. Furthermore, QD3-QD2 tonnes of pork are not now consumed (150,000 tonnes) and this is a reduction in the consumer surplus, which is the extra utility gained by consumers from paying a price that is lower than that which they are prepared to pay. However, there are advantages to the quota for domestic producers. The initial quota allowed domestic producers to supply 0-QS1 and QS2-QD2 tonnes of pork at a price of WP+Quota. This quota meant that their revenue had increased but they will see their revenue increased further with the implementation of the lower quota. This is because they will be able to supply 0-QS1, QS2-QD2 and QS3-QD3 at a price of WP+ Decreased Quota. Foreign producers will now supply their quota of QS1-QS2 and receive a price of WP+ Decreased Quota. This should usually result in a fall in income, which would be detrimental to the American producers who are already suffering economic difficulties, but in theory this does not have to be. An alternative option that could be used by the Russian government is a tariff. This is a tax that is charged on imported goods would cause the world supply curve to shift upwards because it would be placed on the American producers as opposed to the Russia producers. The effect of a tariff can be seen below. The advantage of a tariff is that whilst the deadweight loss (shaded in red) of caused by the tariff would be the same as the one caused by a quota, the Russian government would receive a revenue equal to C. Furthermore, the revenue of domestic, Russian producers would increase by A+B+C, though the revenue of foreign, American producers will fall by C. However, there will be a fall in consumer surplus by D, due to the extra pork that will not be purchased resulting in a deadweight loss of welfare. However, as stated before, this would be the same if a quota is used. Furthermore, the implementation of a tariff is less likely to lead to the creation of a black market. This is because with an import quota there is a chance that there will be massive shortages of pork. Therefore, criminal organisations would see smuggling pork as a lucrative business opportunity. However, with a tariff such shortages are unlikely as it does not set a limit on the number of products imported. That being said, if a tariff is set at an unreasonably high rate then there is still a chance that a black market will open up. Nevertheless either form of protectionism has its disadvantages. Firstly, it leads to less choice for consumers and the lowered competition will see domestic firms become inefficient without any incentive to minimise costs. Moreover, protectionism distorts comparative advantage and this leads to the inefficient use of resources thus leading to reduced specialisation and a reduced potential level of the world’s output. Indeed protectionism could potentially damage economic growth. INDIAN CAR TAX Externalities occur when the consumption or production of a good or service has a spill over effect on a third party. If an externality is negative, then this spill over effect is in some way harmful. Therefore there has to be an external cost i.e. one that is borne by a third party, to add to the private costs of the producer or consumer in order to calculate the full cost to society. In the article, the negative externalities which are occurring in New Delhi, India stem from traffic congestion and air pollution. Fig.1 below shows the external costs of using cars. As seen in Fig.1, consumers will enjoy some of the private benefits of car travel but there will be external costs in the form of air pollution and traffic congestion. Consumers maximise their private utility and consume at the level where MPC=MSC=MPB thus leading to over-consumption of vehicle travel by driving Q25, 000 vehicles at a price of 25,000 rupees. As can be seen in Fig.1, the socially efficient output, i.e. when the full opportunity cost of an extra unit is equal to the value placed by society on its consumption or production, is Q*, as a result there is over-consumption of Q25, 000 to Q*. Furthermore, as a result of MSC being greater than MSB, there is a welfare loss to society. This is an example of market failure. In order to combat the effects of the vehicle use, the Indian government is charging citizens in New Delhi who own more than one car and are implementing a congestion fee. Two-wheelers that cost above 25,000 rupees will be taxed at a rate of four per cent whilst cars priced up to 6 lakh (600,000 rupees) will be increased to the same rate. Those costing between 6 and 10 lakh will be charged seven per cent tax. The effect that the increased tax should have on the use of two-wheeled vehicles is seen in Fig.2. As seen in Fig.2, the implementation of a tax will see the MPC curve move upwards to MPC + tax = MSC + tax. This will reduce consumption to the socially efficient output of Q* but the price will increase to 25,000 rupees plus tax. Therefore the government should receive more revenue which could be then used to further tackle the externalities. However, a problem that the Indian government will face is the fact that the demand for vehicle travel may be price inelastic. Therefore, the amount of people who will forgo vehicle travel will be insignificant and the quantity demanded will not fall to the socially efficient level. There are alternatives to congestion fees and taxes, with advertising being an example. The Indian government could fund positive advertising for substitute goods such as public transport or bicycles thus decreasing the consumption of vehicle travel. One of the problems with this solution is that the costs may be high and so taxes would have to be in place. Moreover, people may not care about the effects of vehicle travel and will therefore continue with their current mode of travel. Another solution could be for the government to restrict the number of driving licences. This is effectively a quota that would essentially see a decrease in the number of cars on the road. However, the problem of who to allocate these licences to arise and this could prove unpopular. Another alternative solution could be to heavily advertise public transport. This may reduce the number of cars on the road and would therefore see a reduction in the negative externalities created. However, for this to work, people would have to heed the advertisements advice and as it would not be compulsory, people may neither listen nor care to change their method of transportation. Overall, it looks like the Indian government’s decision to implement a car tax and congestion fee is the most viable solution because it is less likely to alienate the citizens of New Delhi when compared to curfews and is also more likely to see a decrease in consumption when compared to advertising.

Thursday, January 9, 2020

Why Should High School Sports Be Banned - 1460 Words

Friday night light was always the highlight of the week, but what if there was no more Friday night lights or even no more sporting events at all. Most students do not see how much of a distraction sporting events are until there is no more games. High school sports have been around since the late 19th century or the early 20th century, and at first colleges would play high school. There are some people that believe that today’s society has prioritized sports over academics. Amanda Ripley article, School Should Be About Learning, Not Sports, argues that with sports being in high school it tells students that they do not have to be in school and that there is another path they can take to success; In contrast, Kevin Kniffin argues that†¦show more content†¦In her argument, she gets the viewpoint from a student that went to Germany and he told her doing well at sports was in the U.S just as important as having good grades.(Ripley) This was good for Ripley to hear and bring up in her article because it made her argument that sports get a priority over grades, and this is seen all over the world, not just in this country. One reason that spectators think that sports should be banned from high school is the health and safety risk. There are so many injuries that can take place in a single game Some of these injuries can be short term and long terms risk, but some spectators do not think that sporting events are worth either. The University of Michigan conducted a study and their conclusion was that â€Å"high school athletes become seniors, approximately percent will have used a narcotic pain reliever such as OxyContin or Vicodin for nonmedical purposes.† (Ramey) This study’s conclusion was important to share because it proves that through the injuries a player can get addicted to the pain medicine and continue to take it even after their prescription has gone out. Kniffin wrote an article, High School Athletes Gain Lifetime Benefits, that states a perspective that most people would never think of. Most people would not think that while playing a sport an athlete will gain certain characteristics that will help them their entire life. Kniffin brings upShow MoreRelatedThe Possibility of College Sports Being Banned775 Words   |  3 Pagescollege sports being banned was just a few weeks ago inside of my English 101 class. I cannot express how surprise I was when I found this out. Not in a million years I ever would of thought a activity that most athletes live by every day can just go away in a snap of a finger. How could somebody even turn professional if they have not been in the college phase yet? Questions just arise in my head when I hear about this topic. How could a promising talented basketball player leave their high schoolRead MoreShould School Athletes Have Drug Tests?1301 Words   |  6 PagesShould School Athletes have to take Drug Tests â€Å"17% of teens drink, smoke, and use drugs during the day in the United States.†(Adler) This is the result of the absence of drug testing in our community, especially in our school. An analysis fact from CDC’s objective Terry Pechacek states that 50 million people do drugs in the united states and 4 million of them are underage and the majority of them are in a high school athletic. Citizens predict that this percentage number will slowly pullulateRead MoreWhy High School Football Shouldnt Be Banned.984 Words   |  4 PagesVern M. Rotruck Lyndsey Daniel Comp I MWF 12:00 19 November 2014 Why High School Football Shouldn’t Be Banned. Football, ever since it began, has had the constant question of should it be banned. Footballs origins began back in ancient Greece where even then it was known as a very rough and brutal game. When football came to England it was thought to be so rough that kings Henry II and Henry IV both actually banned it. A lot has changed since those times in history. We now have equipmentRead MoreSport Enhancement Drugs1667 Words   |  7 PagesSteroids in Sports: Exploratory Essay The sports world has changed drastically over the past 10 years. The use of steroids has risen within that amount of time and it has changed the view of sports and the game itself. As a fan of all sports, it interests me why athletes feel like it’s ok or acceptable to take drugs to enhance their performance on the field of play. Athletes are always looking for ways to improve their skills on and off the field. With the use of steroids, athletes everywhere,Read MoreSteroid Use in Sports1732 Words   |  7 Pagesillegal steroids which are also known as performance enhancing drugs. These substances which are banned in professional sports aren’t just any type of steroid or drug. They are called anabolic steroids or performance enhancing drugs, and they are synthetically produced substances of male testosterone hormones. The use of these illegal steroids has garnered a lot of publicity within the world of sports over the past few years. As athletes continue to become bigge r, faster, and stronger many peopleRead MoreAthletes Understand The Danger Of Using Performance Enhancing Drugs1061 Words   |  5 Pagesthe pill.† (Freudenrich) Most competitive athletes will do whatever it takes to reach their goals, because to win is what satisfies their dream and they are willing to put their own life at risk. Abusing performance enhancing drugs needs to be banned in sport, because it ruined athlete’s health, reputation, and is giving a bad impression to the young athletes. Health in general is important. Taking care of its own health is what athletes need to be cared for because without a good body conditionRead MoreCollege Athletes : The Masters Of Multitasking1305 Words   |  6 Pagesmultitasking. Not only being able to play there individual sports at a high level but also finding the time to dedicate to there academics and achieve relatively decent grades. The amount of time that they dedicate to there university out on the game field and in the classroom should be deserving of a reward. Some argue that the problem would be that not every school can afford to give college athletes a decent compensation in every sport; for instance teams that do not bring in a lot of revenue suchRead MoreDrug Use in Sports Essay1472 Words   |  6 Pages Drugs should be banned in all sports. They have been a problem for a long time. Athletes use them to enhance their body and for simply just the edge. There is nothing wrong with using some drugs to enhance your bo dy as long as they are legal. The problems that come with drugs in sports are how to detect them. Some professional sports, such as the NHL, do not even use drug tests. The only sports that test for everything are the NBA and NFL. The Major League Baseball only tests for illegal drugs suchRead MoreCollege Is More Social Than Academic?891 Words   |  4 Pagesfootball to be banned because it has no academic purpose. He states that due to college football, grades start to drop, large amount of money is being spent, and activities that does have a high rate of graduating is being removed. Many students have gone to collage so they can get a higher and better education. What students don’t realize is, college can also be a distraction with a more social life and extracurricular activities. Activities can be from different types of sports such as footballRead MoreThe Banning Of Youth Football1405 Words   |  6 Pages The Banning of Youth Football Malik Suleman Ethical Issues in Sport: 001 Professor Andrea 09/07/2017 In the United States of America, football is perhaps the most revered sport of all time. It is essentially a right of passage for every child to play a sport at some point and many children choose to play football as it is one of the United State’s favorite past times. In fact, a total of 1.23 million youth ages 6-12 played tackle football in 2015 (Farrey, 2016). Although football

Wednesday, January 1, 2020

To Kill a Mockingbird Growing Up - 1153 Words

To Kill a Mockingbird Jem acts maturely The novel To Kill a Mocking Bird by Harper Lee is about a young girl named Scout and her brother, Jem, growing up in the small, southern town of Maycomb, Alabama. Scout and Jem live with their older father, Atticus, and spend their summers playing with their friend, Dill. They have many neighbors, and one is an older woman named Mrs. Dubose. As the siblings grow older, they begin to drift apart and new disagreements begin. Yet, as Jem begins change, he starts to think more maturely about feuds with his sister and opinions towards his neighbors. For example, in the tire incident, Jem realizes that Scout is in trouble and tries to help her. In addition, in the flower incident with Mrs. Dubose,†¦show more content†¦Dubose said earlier about Atticus. Scout tells us that,  gHe did not begin to calm down until he had cut the tops off every camellia bush Mrs. Dubose owned, until the ground was littered with green buds and leaves. He bent my baton against his knee c h (103) . This quote shows that Jem was feeling very hurt by what Mrs. Dubose had said about his father. To Jem, Atticus seems feeble and old, so, when threatened, Jem feels it is his responsibility to protect him. In the book, when Mrs. Dubose talks about Atticus, Jem just ignores her and walks away, but finally he decides to get revenge. He does this by,  glittering the ground with green buds and leaves. h Jem tries to hurt something Mrs. Dubose loves like she attacked Atticus. Mrs. Dubose fs harsh words make Jem feel that it is his job to defend Atticus. As To Kill a Mockingbird progresses, Jem takes definitive steps toward maturity with his actions in the tire and flower incidents, for example. He would later go on to repair the flowerbed he destroyed, and take greater care to protect Scout. Through his actions, we can see Jem develop a sense of morals and responsibility that would prove to be a lifesaver. scout and Jem Finch are growing up in the tired old Alabama town of Maycomb. Their father, Atticus, is the local lawyer and as a single parent tries to raise his children with honor and respect to their individualism. With the Depression on times are hard,Show MoreRelatedKill A Mockingbird : A Novel About Growing Up Under Extraordinary Circumstances879 Words   |  4 PagesTo Kill a Mockingbird is primarily a novel about growing up under extraordinary circumstances in the 1930s in the Southern United States. The story covers a span of three years, during which the main characters undergo significant changes. Scout Finch lives with her brother Jem and their father Atticus in the fictitious town of Maycomb, Alabama. Maycomb is a small, close-knit town, and every family has its social station depending on where they live, who their parents are, and how long their ancestorsRead MoreHow Does Harper Lee Portray the Themes of Innocence, Maturity and Growing Up in to Kill a Mockingbird ? 1053 Words   |  5 PagesIn ‘To Kill a Mockingbird’ written by Harper Lee, the author has used numerous different methods to portray the themes of innocence, maturity and growing up. These themes were put in so that the audience could become more empathetic towards the characters, especially the protagonists. She depicts these themes through characters, events, using symbolism, imagery and contrast located throughout the book. Firstly, Harper Lee shows the themes of innocence, maturity and growing up through the mainRead MoreEssay on How Harper Lee Was Influenced by The Times 1473 Words   |  6 Pageswrite about. Great authors write about what they know. They write about what they see. They write about what they hear. They write about personal experiences and incorporate details from their lives into their literature. Harper Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird is a classical work that reflects the Civil Rights and Women’s Movement of the 1950’s-1960’s through her depiction of the relationship between blacks and whites and her portrayal of female characters. The 1950’s and the 1960’s was a time ofRead MoreTo Kill a Mockingbird and Animal Farm Essay791 Words   |  4 PagesHarper Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird is considered a classic text because it is based on the meaning of a mockingbird, the idea of growing up, and the theme of prejudice and racism which still is a problem today. George Orwell’s Animal Farm is considered a classic text because it holds historical importance and shows how easily humans can be corrupted by power. The story of To Kill a Mockingbird is set in Alabama, a town in Maycomb, during the Great Depression. The story is told in the eyes of ScoutRead MoreTo Kill A Mockingbird Theme Analysis1398 Words   |  6 Pagesdon’t grow up. If we don’t grow, we aren’t really living.† Losing something close to us is the key to growing up, and Scout, the protagonist in To Kill A Mockingbird, is one of those characters. Scout and several other characters in the novel lose their innocence as they begin to see the prejudice and racism of the 1930’s South. All of these characters were innocent and unaware of what Maycomb was, and their innocence was taken away from them because of that. In To Kill A Mockingbird, Harper LeeRead MoreEssay On Racism In To Kill A Mockingbird1212 Words   |  5 PagesHarper Lee’s novel, To Kill a Mockingbird, is highly influenced by the life she lived as a little girl. She grew up in the small town of Monroeville, Alabama. She was bo rn there in 1926 and recently passed away in February of 2016 (Lee). Harper Lee’s real name was Nelle (Nail), but everyone calls her Harper because she opted for Nelle to be left off of her first novel. Her parents named her after her grandmother, Ellen, but spelled backwards (Shields I Am Scout 6). Despite growing up with two older sistersRead MoreKill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee1294 Words   |  6 PagesGrowing up is an unforgettable stage of life that all people will experience. This transition is usually known well as the change from a child to an adult. Harper Lee’s historical fiction novel ‘To Kill a Mockingbird’ illustrates this movement proficiently. The plotline of the small, quiet town of Maycomb suddenly growing intense and controversial shows readers how surrounding events shape the people who participate in them, especially the young. ‘To Kill a Mockingbird’ follows multiple childrenRead MoreKill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee963 W ords   |  4 Pageshand in hand with the theme growing up, when older characters give advice to children or siblings.Growing up is used frequently in the novel To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee. Harper Lee uses the theme growing up in To Kill a Mockingbird to change characters opinion, develop characters through their world, and utilizes prejudice to reveal growing up. One major cause growing up is used in To Kill a Mockingbird is to represent a change of opinion. One part growing up was shown in is through theRead MoreA Time to Kill and to Kill a Mockingbird1314 Words   |  6 PagesThe movie based on John Grishams A Time to Kill is a Hollywoodized, modern-day version of To Kill a Mockingbird. Both movies employ many of the same themes and plot elements; but the former movie is one-dimensional and predictable while the latter is innovative and purposeful. The movie version of Harper Lees novel To Kill a Mockingbird is considered a classic film, whereas John Grishams adapted novel is merely another example of the money making efforts of Hollywood. Some of the movies moreRead MoreKill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee1656 Words   |  7 Pagesâ€Å"Mockingbirds don’t do any harm but make music for us †¦ that’s why it’s a sin to kill a mockingbird†, is a famous quote from the book To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee. Atticus, the father of the main character Scout, says this to her and her brother Jem when they receive rifles for Christmas. This book is considered a classic due to the allegory between the book title and the trial that occurs about halfway through the book. In the beginning of To Kill a Mockingbird, Scout is six. She is an innocent